Job enrichment is enriching jobs by adding more qualitative aspects. The qualitative expansion such as increased responsibilities, powers and autonomy are special features of job enrichment.
What Job Enrichment means:
- • Jobs which have great variety
- • Jobs which gives meaningful work experience
- • Jobs which requires higher knowledge and skills
- • Jobs which have chances for personal growth
- • Jobs which gives workers more responsibility
- • Jobs which gives workers more Autonomy
Goals of Job Enrichment
Job enrichment can be described as me medium through which management can motivate self-driven employees by assigning them additional responsibility normally reserved for higher level employees. By doing this, employees feel like their work has meaning and is important to the company. This theory is based on the premise that employees have a natural tendency to want to succeed and are eager to be trusted with a bigger role in the company.
As the manager walk through the process of Job Enrichment , they need to keep following goals in the mind :
- • Reduce repetitive work in nature
- • Increase the employee's feelings of recognition and achievement in organization
- • Provide opportunities for Employee Advancement (i.e. promotions into jobs requiring more skills).
- • Provide opportunities for Employee Growth (i.e. an increase in skills and knowledge without a job promotion).
Measures to Enrich the job
Managers can resort to take following measures to enrich the job in organization :
- • Increase responsibility of individuals.
- • Encourage participation of employees.
- • Give enough freedom to the employees in deciding about work methods, pace and sequence of job.
- • Provide continuous feedback to the employees.
- • Make the personnel understand how tasks contribute to finished products of the enterprise.
- • Give adequate benefits to the employees. Management should provide extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to the employees depending upon their motivational patterns.
- • Management should provide adequate welfare measures to the employees. People should perceive that management is sincere and caring about them.
Benefits of Job Enrichment for Organization
Job enrichment is the performance pattern designed to provide opportunities for achievement, advancement, recognition, power, responsibilities and growth potential. Hence individual employee should gets opportunity to modify their performance and merit and should feel the enrichment of their jobs.
Enrichment should become motivator as pointed out by Herzberg which benefits the organization in following ways :
- • The enrichment encourages self-actualization, growth and provides job satisfaction to employees. Intrinsic motivation is increased to arrive at higher performance and more productive human resources.
- • Negative effects, such as absenteeism, less turnover and grievances, are reduced by enrichment.
- • An organization is benefitted consequently, which is observed in the form of cost saving and quality output.
- • Society is benefitted because of cheap, quality products and increased employment opportunities.
- • Job enrichment seeks to add depth to the job by giving more work opportunities, advanced techniques, responsibilities, discretion and power.
- • It satisfies the higher order of needs, viz. social and self-actualization needs. Job enrichment is further discussed from the angles of the Herzberg theory.
Shortcomings of Job Enrichment
There are many limitations or shortcoming of Job enrichment which must be avoided for proper implementation of job enrichment process.
- • It has limited use for highly skilled managers and professionals
- • In most of cases , job enrichment does not give the expected results
- • People often oppose it , instead of accepting them as it makes many changes in the job.
- • In most of cases consent of workers or employees are not considered before implementing job enrichment.
- • Sometimes mangers force the workers or employees to accept job enrichment which is not good sign from organization point of view.
- • Job enrichment is a highly costly affair. In most of the cases, the cost involved is more than the gains in productivity.
Despite these limitations, job-enrichment is a valuable motivational technique, but management must use it selectively and give proper recognition to the complex human and situational variables . Many professionals have gone on to generalize that job enrichment is the solution to all behavioral problems facing modern management. Though, this type of generalization does, not seem entirely justified, but still the importance of job enrichment as an effective motivational technique cannot be ruled out.